As soon as house to a number of pre-colonial empires, the landlocked, arid West African nation of Mali is among the largest on the continent. For hundreds of years, its northern metropolis of Timbuktu was a key regional buying and selling put up and centre of Islamic tradition.
After independence from France in 1960, Mali suffered droughts, rebellions, and 23 years of army dictatorship till democratic elections in 1992.
In 2013, France intervened militarily on the authorities’s request, however a jihadist insurgency within the north and central areas has since gathered tempo.
Mali is famend worldwide for having produced a few of the stars of African music, most notably Salif Keita.
Space: 1,240,192 sq km
Inhabitants: 21.4 million
Languages: French, plus Bambara, Dogon, Fulfulde, Manding, Arabic, Tuareg
Life expectancy: 57 years (males) 59 years (ladies)
Interim head of state: Assimi Goïta
The army council that seized energy in August 2020 is led by Colonel Assimi Goïta.
At first he put an interim president and prime minister in place, however ousted them in Could 2021 in a dispute over their try to switch two Goïta allies within the cupboard.
West African leaders have expressed concern over the dearth of opposition and civilian illustration within the deliberate transition to elections.
Mali is fighting a jihadist insurgency that has made a lot of the north and east ungovernable.
Mali’s jihadist insurgency and the military-led authorities have degraded media freedoms.
Militant teams threaten journalists and goal media shops. Professional-junta teams have demanded “patriotic journalism”, resulting in self-censorship.
Radio is the main medium. There are a whole lot of stations, run by the state in addition to by personal operators.
Some key dates in Mali’s historical past:
c. 300AD-1200s – A lot of the area is a part of the Ghana Empire, one among a number of main West African empires controlling trans-Saharan commerce in gold, salt, different valuable commodities – and slaves.
c. 632-700s – Arab invasion of North Africa and subsequent unfold of Islam.
c.1226-1670 – Mali Empire turns into dominant drive within the higher Niger basin following the Battle of Krina in 1234.
c. 1464-1591 – because the Mali Empire loses a few of its energy, dropping its dominance of the gold commerce, the Songhai Empire regularly beneficial properties management over the jap half of the Mali Empire.
1591 – The Battle of Tondibi. Songhai forces decisively defeated by the military of the Saadi dynasty in Morocco, who make Timbuktu their capital.
The autumn of the Songhai Empire marks the tip of the area’s function as a buying and selling crossroads. Space splinters into smaller kingdoms.
1898 – France completes conquest of Mali, then known as French Sudan.
1958 – French Sudan, which adjustments its title to the Sudanese Republic, turns into an autonomous republic inside the French Neighborhood.
1959 – Mali and Senegal unite to grow to be the Mali Federation.
1960 – Mali Federation beneficial properties independence from France. Senegal swiftly withdraws from the federation, permitting the Sudanese Republic to grow to be the unbiased Republic of Mali, with Modibo Keïta as president. It turns into a one-party, socialist state.
1968 – Following financial decline, Keïta is overthrown in a coup led by Moussa Traoré, who units up a military-led regime and represses political opposition and protests.
Nineteen Eighties – Some restricted political liberalization.
1991 – March revolution; President Traoré arrested. Opposition events are legalized and a structure is permitted.
2012 – Tuareg rebel in northern Mali, led by the Nationwide Motion for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA).
Coup, after which Islamist teams together with Ansar Dine and Al-Qaeda within the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), who had helped the MNLA defeat the federal government, activate the Tuareg and seize a number of cities.
France intervenes militarily and recaptures key cities.
2015 onwards – Battle in central Mali between agriculturalists just like the Dogon and the Bambara, and pastoralists just like the Fula (or Fulani) over entry to land and water. These elements which have been exacerbated by local weather change because the Fula transfer into new areas.
2020 – Malian military led by Colonel Assimi Goïta and Colonel-Main Ismaël Wagué oust President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta in a coup. A political transition to civilian rule is agreed.
2021 – Tensions between civilian politicians and the army within the interim administration result in one other coup, led by Assimi Goïta. Neighbouring states impose sanctions
2022 – France withdraws its troops from Mali. Mali’s authorities strengthens its hyperlinks with Moscow, with mercenaries from the Wagner group deployed within the nation.