South Sudan gained independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011 as the end result of a 2005 settlement that ended Africa’s longest-running civil conflict.
Made up of the ten southern-most states of Sudan, South Sudan is among the most numerous international locations in Africa. It’s house to over 60 totally different main ethnic teams.
Independence didn’t convey battle in South Sudan to an finish. Civil conflict broke out in 2013 when the president fell out along with his then vp, resulting in a battle that has displaced some 4 million individuals.
An influence-sharing settlement was signed between the combatants in August 2018 in a bid to convey the five-year civil conflict to an finish.
Space: 644,329 sq km
Inhabitants: 11.5 million
Languages: English, additionally Dinka, Nuer, Murle, Luo, Ma’di, Otuho, Zande and others
Life expectancy: 54 years (males) 57 years (girls)
President: Salva Kiir Mayardit
Salva Kiir Mayardit grew to become president of South Sudan – then nonetheless a part of Sudan – and head of the Sudan Folks’s Liberation Motion (SPLM) in 2005, succeeding long-time insurgent chief John Garang, who died in a helicopter crash.
Mr Kiir was re-elected as president in multiparty polls within the south in April 2010. In July 2011, when South Sudan grew to become impartial, he grew to become president of the brand new state.
Simply two years later, nonetheless, the nation was engulfed by civil conflict when Mr Kiir sacked his complete cupboard and accused Vice-President Riek Machar of instigating a failed coup.
In August 2018, after 5 years of civil conflict, Mr Kiir signed a power-sharing settlement with insurgent chief Machar and different opposition teams in a bid to finish the brutal battle.
Constitutional ensures of media freedom usually are not revered in observe, and journalists threat harassment and detention over experiences deemed unfavourable by the authorities.
Radio is the most well-liked medium. Personal native stations, a few of them with international funding, broadcast alongside the state-run nationwide community.
Some key dates in South Sudan’s historical past:
1952 – Egyptian revolution triggers a transfer in the direction of Sudanese independence. Egypt and Britain enable each Sudanese areas, north and south, to vote on independence.
1956 – Sudan turns into impartial however southern states are sad with their lack of autonomy.
1955-1972 – First Sudanese Civil Struggle, between north and south over calls for for extra regional autonomy by southern Sudan area. Some 500,000 are estimated to have been killed.
1972 – Peace settlement signed, however this fails to satisfactorily dispel tensions.
1969 – Colonel Gaafar Nimeiry carries out a coup. Parliament and political events are abolished.
1983 – Numeiry introduces Sharia Islamic regulation.
1983-2005 – Second Sudanese Civil Struggle. Between the central Sudanese authorities and the Sudan Folks’s Liberation Military. Largely a continuation of the primary civil conflict.
2011 – South Sudan turns into an impartial nation, after over 20 years of guerrilla warfare. Some two million individuals are estimated to have died on account of conflict, famine and illness attributable to the battle, and greater than 4 million displaced.
2012 – Disagreements with Sudan over the oil-rich area of Abyei erupt into preventing, often called the Heglig Disaster. A peace deal is reached, making a 10km demilitarized zone alongside the border and permitting South Sudan’s oil exports to restart.
2013 – Civil conflict breaks out after the president, Salva Kiir, sacks the cupboard and accuses Vice-President Riek Machar of planning a failed coup. Over 2.2 million individuals are displaced by the preventing and extreme famine places the lives of 1000’s in danger.
2018 – Renewed bid to finish civil conflict results in a power-sharing settlement between the warring sides.